The first chapter in SICP deals with computational processes and how to build procedures. The second chapter is about data abstraction, and how to represent different types of data using Scheme. It introduces the idea of compound data, and presents a number of approaches for representing complex data with Scheme. By utilizing compound data in constructing abstractions, we are afforded the ability of reasoning about the data at a higher conceptual level. The use of compound data also increases the modularity of programs.
Scheme provides a compound structure called a pair which allows us to construct compound data. Pairs can be constructed using the primitive procedure cons which takes two arguments and returns a compound data object. We can use the primitive procedures car and cdr which allow us to retrieve the elements of the pair, car returning the first, and cdr the second.
The second chapter spends a good portion of time discussing how you can represent different types of data objects, and shows how you can construct them using pairs. In this blog post we are going to focus simply on how pairs work and how they are used to build lists.
First it may be helpful to see how we would be able to implement pairs on our own, if they weren’t provided as primitive objects through Scheme.
The below procedures effectively show the behavior of cons, car and cdr.
(define (cons x y) (define (dispatch m) (cond ((= m 0) x) ((= m 1) y) (else (error "Argument not 0 or 1 -- CONS" m)))) dispatch) (define (car z) (z 0)) (define (cdr z) (z 1))
Here, if you were to apply car or cdr to a pair created by cons, it would apply the dispatch procedure with the argument of either 0 or 1 respectively. You can run the code above to test it out if it’s not clear how it works.
Exercises 2.4 through 2.6 show a number of different ways with which you can represent pairs without using the primitive procedures.
Section 2.2 starts off by discussing how to visualize pairs using the box and pointer method, and shows that you can glue pairs together to form compound data.
One of the structures which can be built with pairs is a sequence, which is an ordered collection of data objects. In this construction the car of each pair is the corresponding item in the chain, and the cdr is the next pair in the chain. Such a sequence of pairs, when it is terminated with nil, forms a list.
(cons 1 (cons 2 (cons 3 (cons 4 nil))))
This construction of a sequence of pairs by using cons forms a list.
Scheme provides a primitive called list which can be used to form this type of compound data.
(list 1 2 3 4)
This is the equivalent of the code shown above creating a list by using cons.
Typically a list will be output by showing the sequence of items enclosed in parenthesis. DrRacket outputs the list of items enclosed in brackets.
Lists and pairs in Scheme provide a useful tool for constructing other compound data objects, and they are used extensively in the rest of the book.
If you haven’t started to get better at recursion by working this far through SICP, the book will be nearly impossible to get through. SICP goes through a number of exercises which require you to recursively reason about lists, and taking the time to work through them is imperative to getting through the other exercises and understanding much of the example code. I’ve worked through them and still get stumped for a while at some of them.
The book, The Little Schemer, looks like it will help a lot for reasoning about programming in a recursive fashion. I’ve made it through chapter 5 and doing more and more of it, it gets easier to think recursively, although I’m still not fantastic at it. I plan on finishing The Little Schemer once I finish with the exercises for chapter 2 of SICP. I’m up to 2.63, so I’m making good progress and I’m about two months in.
Through chapter 2 a number of generic procedures are developed for performing operations with lists.
One of the more useful procedures developed is accumulate which we’ll look at in the next post in this series. Following that we’ll examine flatmap and how it is used in SICP.