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A Refactoring Project in Python: Music CD List, Part 3 of 3

Published: March 5, 2021
Last Updated: April 25, 2021

The Music CD List started as an example program making use of a hand-coded Linked List to demonstrate refactoring to the Pythonic, and it has grown to a web application with a thread safe ‘ListStore.’ By the end of part 2 it had a functional web front-end with a number of features.

Now it’s time to wrap up this blog series and review a little bit. In addition to talking about the refactoring and Pythonic I’ll also go over the packaging I did between blog posts to dump the application into a Docker image.

It’s left in a state where it could be taken further in a number of different directions. One option, would be to turn it into a Serverless application on AWS. Another option, though arguably less fun, would be to make it a more traditional server based application. The utility of the existing ListStore abstraction that came about in the second post would depend upon the required persistence model the future version would require. The Serverless edition would likely favor changing the ListStore, or replacing it.

For now the application is as baked as it’s going to be for the near future. The future of the Music CD List is most likely for it to sit, unadmired, gathering internet dust on the shelves of useless example repositories gathered on GitHub.

But anyway, before I go over packaging it up into a Docker based build and image which can run the application, I’ll go over the refactoring.

The Quest for the Pythonic

I started this series of posts with a simple Linked List storing a list of CDs that was entered directly in the code. Then, I added in some unit tests, and finally an abstraction with the idea of allowing any data structure to be used to back the CD list. In the end, the abstraction ended up using Python’s MutableSequence, but hey, it works. So far I’ve yet to use anything besides the Linked List.

In between posts I added a Flask Web API and also a simple React based front-end application to make it easier to actually use the CD List. Now, you can add CDs through the GUI, upload or download the list as a CSV, and sort and paginate the results. It’s a simple interface that works reasonably well so far – if unfinished because you can’t edit or delete CDs through the web interface yet.

But returning to the original task of the series of posts, and not getting drawn into continually developing it, it’s time to offer some final ‘refactorings’ and reflect on making this simple program more “Pythonic.”

In The Hitchhiker’s Guide to Python: Code Style the common fact that code is read more than it is written is recognized, and a number of style guidelines are offered, or “Pythonic” idioms.

So to finish of this refactoring project, and make the code as Pythonic as possible, I’m going to do a review and try to fix any flagrant violations of the Pythonic I can see (while learning more of the Pythonic way). I’ll also incorporate advice from the book “Effective Python.”

Then, to finish it off I’ll write up a summary reflecting on PEP 20, and how I setup my VS Code project using linting and unit testing to help me get to the point where I didn’t think this was too embarrassing to put on the internet.

Reviewing Music CD List for the “Un-Pythonic”

  1. Search for obviously Un-Pythonic code:

Somehow I can’t find any obvious examples right away in the sample program. If only I was reviewing the JavaScript! I’ll let this slide for now, there are a few variable names I could change, but that would be boring. So much for a few obvious example.

  1. Consider PEP 20 - The Zen of Python

With the code relatively fresh in my mind I read through the aphorisms contained in PEP 20 and picked out a few to focus on.

Beautiful is better than ugly

Without going to extremes, this is a straightforward thing to evaluate and I think here I’ve done okay. None of the code in Music CD List is terrible to look at, and overall it has a simple design, I think. I’ll leave it to the reader to easily disagree. Hey, it could have been C# or Clojure!

Errors should never pass silently.

Hmm, I kind of took a flier on this one. Not only do errors not silently pass, they take a crash and burn approach. I could probably pick up a few points on this code by adding in better exception handling. I’ve seen idiomatic Python that uses exception handling as a course of normal code flow and program control, more so than I’d say is typical in other languages, and it has thrown me for a loop on occasion.

I actually ran into this when implementing support for mutable sequences. During the iteration there is a “stop condition” that apparently expects an Exception to be thrown to stop the iteration!

Readability counts.

Readability definitely counts, and I like to think that in general I can write code that is readable. It’s not always a given, but I try to write things out well, and that means sometimes not writing code in the shortest, or, also, the longest way possible.

After having experience I’ve also found different code bases become more or less readable after spending more time with them, and sometimes readability becomes intertwined with the architecture and layout of the code. I think the readability increases the more one becomes familiar with the idioms and style of the author – hence, here, the Pythonic. Following the Pythonic style (and a somewhat standard layout) in general adds to the readability for potential new contributors right away.

Now is better than never.

Although never is often better than right now.

These two are the reason the Music CD List exists basically. I could have waited and studied the “Pythonic” and everything written on it for months before diving into this. That said, I wouldn’t have a half-baked Music CD List if I did that (hey, wait a second). Although that’s more due to not having a great idea to start with more than striving for the Pythonic.

I read these two aphorisms as contradictions. I could be wrong, but I don’t think the second one is meant to be taken seriously. I’m great at procrastinating myself, and know how the second one works for me. But they are fungible enough to fit many situations equally well.


I developed the Music CD List basically as a demo app, and while I may grow it to use as an AWS example, for now I’m going to keep the “deployment” fairly simple. The end state of this series of posts is the application capable of being built into a Docker container and run.

While I was developing it I switched from VS Code to PyCharm, and found debugging both the SPA portion and the Python portion simple within both of these environments. I tend to lean a little bit towards liking PyCharm better at this moment, but either is fine and easy to setup as is.

To run it locally and not in the Docker container, you simply launch the Python Flask application after installing the requirements (from “requirements.txt” – I setup a Virtual Environment) and then run the React front-end. The front-end was setup simply using the “Create React App” tool provided with React and can be launched for debugging with “npm start” from the command line after setting an environment variable for the host and port the Flask application is listening on. If you look through the Dockerfile you can see the environment variable to set.

After the first time of running the application it becomes very easy, and easy to also integrate with VS Code or PyCharm, and I switch around between IDEs enough not to be totally a “super expert” in any (as I write this in Emacs).

To finish it off and leave this series of posts with a somewhat “finished” product I packaged it up into a Docker container which serves the static front end using nginx while proxying the API calls to the Flask app using the standard uwsgi.

I was able to make use of the multistage Docker build, where I use a node Docker image to build the SPA, and then copy the build output to the Python Docker image where nginx and uwsgi are setup along with the Python app. I customized the uwsgi and nginx configurations a little from what may be considered the norm because this application supports multiple threads, but not multiple processes. With multiple processes you start to see inconsistent results because the state is stored in process and not shared between the processes.

I certainly wouldn’t consider the current Docker setup ready for production, as there are a few best practices I’m not following. Starting with what would probably be considered the questionable use of a shell script to launch multiple processes instead of supervisor or something like that. But for a cheap, fast, locally runnable “finished” product I think it’s fine.

To Wrap It Up

The Music CD List is by no means a perfect project, but considering it started as just a link list with no aim or requirements, I think it’s turned out decent to show working towards the Pythonic.

Perhaps a better scenario would have been a more fully featured mess of code which could have been refactored, as this more or less started small and was kind-of “refactored” along the way. I also skimped on talking about “Effective Python” and changes based upon recommendations from that book like I said I would do in this post, but oh well.

The project is left off here and tagged with ‘music_cd_list_post3a.’ Any additions or updates will show up in the main branch, but pretty much this repo is finished as is this series of entries.

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