This is the first post in what will be a few posts concerning the deployment of a web application to AWS.
This post will provide a high-level overview of the process and technologies used to deploy the application, and by the end of it a functioning development environment will be deployable in a repeatable manner.
While the rest of the posts, and the application, are yet to be developed, I plan on a few posts (2 or 3) and having a tagged GitHub which shows the state of the development to go with the associated post.
The GitHub repo is available here, and the state at the end of this post is marked with the tag ‘part1.’ It represents my first take at a repeatable dev environment, and will be refactored a bit as I go along further.
The application development is a bit orthogonal to this series of posts, and isn’t terribly important. This outline and deployment would work for nearly any basic web application on Linux, with modifications of course. And I mean basic, the end state of this application is a simple, single server application. Not a complex distributed system with multiple databases spanning two cloud providers.
Most of this post is going to be high-level kind of descriptions and things that I’ve discovered/done along the way while doing this. It’s not really a how-to guide, although if you’re considering using this tech for something similar it might be useful to you.
Oh, fyi, this is the first time I’m doing this and its basically pieced together random bits of information on the internet. I didn’t even stay at a Holiday Inn Express last night.
So anyway, to start out, let’s just kind of wing it and build up the development environment.
First, I’m doing this on an Ubuntu workstation and I’ve already installed Terraform, Ansible, and a utility which helps connect Ansible and Terraform.
So, just to make sure you can expect close to the same results, this is the software and versions I’m using:
- Terraform - v0.12.19
- Terraform-inventory - v0.9 available at https://github.com/adammck/terraform-inventory
- Ansible - v2.9.3
I’m not going to go into great detail on every little step of this, and I’m going to assume the reader can do things like install software and troubleshoot why it may not be working.
For instance, to work with Terraform and AWS, you need the AWS CLI installed but I didn’t list that up there.
This post is going to go over the broad strokes and occasionally dip down into the details to help out. But it’s going to leave a lot out and assume you can follow along anyway.
The first thing we’re going to do is get our dev environment setup on AWS using Terraform.
I’m going to define success here as a running EC2 instance publicly accessible via DNS, with an SSL certificate, running the simple web application.
Let’s tackle the Terraform part of that now.
Terraform allows us to pretty easily define our infrastructure as code. It took me an hour or two to get my initial setup working, because the Terraform getting started guide of course didn’t work for me. I think it has to do with some different defaults on my AWS account.
Basically, all the AWS resources are defined in code, and Terraform processes the code, creates/modifies/deletes the infrastructure on AWS, and everything is great. A repeatable, clearly defined infrastructure that isn’t driven by clicking through a GUI or one off commands that you can only dream of repeating identically the next time you need to.
When Terraform processes the code and creates the infrastructure, it needs to keep track of the resources it has created, and how they map to the resource definitions in the code files. It does this by storing the mappings between the deployed resource, and its definition, in a state database. The database is basically just a file and it maps resource ids to the definitions in your code file.
Terraform offers a few ways for managing this state and the mapping to your code. The simplest way, is to work with the file locally. This however doesn’t work so well when you have multiple users, or, in my case, want to work from multiple computers.
There are a few options for setting up a remote store for the state, and these options are documented on the Terraform site. I ended up going with the Terraform cloud after starting off just using the local file. It was easy to setup, and best of all, free.
Since the Terraform getting started guide, which showed basically exactly what I wanted to do, didn’t work, I had more to do in order to get going. In the end it wasn’t too bad, it just took a little longer than the five minute getting started guide laid out.
What I ended up doing was a little bit of trial and error to figure out all the AWS resources I needed to create in order to have a publicly accessible development server. In the end I needed to spell out everything: a keypair, VPC, subnet, internet gateway, routing table, EC2 instance, security group, and the DNS record.
Really the only interesting part I ran into was figuring out how to update a resource that was created independently of my Terraform code. I already had a hosted DNS zone created in Route 53, and I want that zone to not be destroyed with the rest of my resources I define in Terraform when I turn off the dev environment.
This is accomplished using a data source, which basically lets me find a reference to something not defined in my Terraform module.
I’m avoiding going over all of the Terraform definitions because I don’t know them all, and to get my dev server up and running, I don’t need to know it. When we do the prod server, we’ll refactor the Terraform, and make it more useful down the road.
Overall working with Terraform is a pretty good experience, and the documentation out there is reasonable. It was a few more hours work to get it going than it looked like it might be, but this is pretty par for the course in technology land. Sometimes the guide works, sometimes it doesn’t.
If you are a developer, I would imagine that the roadblocks to using Terraform would be less about Terraform, and more about how knowledgeable you are about systems, networking, and “the cloud.”
Anyway, the development server is defined in terraform-dev.tv in the GitHub repository, and you can see it in all of its glory there. I’m sure there are some mistakes built into it, but it seems to more or less work.
To be fair, the Terraform file in the repo at this point *works*, and seems to work pretty well – but it needs some refactoring. Not just the code (that’s probably just about ok), but the directory structure. It’s not prime-time Terraform, but it’s not a bad starting point I think.
Now onto the next learning adventure, which is using Ansible to deploy even more buzzwords onto your EC2 instance automatically.
Deploy Buzzwords with Ansible
So now that we have a dev environment that we can easily turn on and off again, we need to be able to setup the software on that server.
Now I’ve decided to use Ansible for this, and I like to think that I made a good decision to do so, because I don’t need a management server to do anything and when I started playing with all of this it worked basically right away.
That said, there isn’t an *official* Ansible provider for Terraform, and I guess there are for some other configuration/deployment technologies, but whatever, because so far it works and this is my blog I can do what I want to.
The thing with Ansible is that you need to do your deployment/management things from a non-Windows operating system. Not a big deal really, and there are ways to do it from Windows with WSL (I assume anyway), but just a heads up.
Ansible is for the configuration of software on the systems, like Terraform is for the configuration of infrastructure on the cloud.
By defining “playbooks”, which are basically YAML files with tasks to be run on different hosts, Ansible lets you automate the deployment and configuration of software. Actually, you can do other stuff like automate your network switches and things like that as well.
The dev server (and production too basically) needs a few things to be installed and configured to host our application.
It’s going to need:
- Java Runtime
- SSL certificate
- configuration changes for nginx
- configuration to start the web app (it’s a java program basically)
- the application
This is actually surprisingly easy to get setup with Ansible. The only part that requires digging a little is the use of terraform-inventory, which is a little utility which dynamically builds an inventory for Ansible from the Terraform state.
Besides that, it’s just a matter of composing the configuration files and the playbook for Ansible. I basically used the ad-hoc Ansible command to find the correct usage of the modules to install the software, and then built a playbook from that. It was almost too easy for the most part.
In fact, Ansible was so easy to get started with, that I have to say I’m pretty impressed. Again, like Terraform, knowledge about what you’re configuring is probably the limiting factor.
That said, I’m definitely not using Ansible as well as I could be, and it too needs some work before production. But – for now, I can deploy and configure my dev server with just a few commands, which is good enough.
To Conclude Part 1
Getting this stuff working was actually a lot of fun. I started working in technology fixing printers and computers (ok actually it was QBasic but professionally anyway), and progressed into systems and networking, only to circle back to development. So I think this infrastructure as code, and automated deployment and configuration stuff is pretty sweet.
It took a little bit of time to do (mostly just to write this), but my development server can be launched in just a few minutes, from nothing. Totally awesome.
I would like to be able to just shut it off somehow in case I forget it’s on. But it’s only a t3.nano, which is cheap, but not free. If it was more money I would definitely want a shutoff, almost like reverse monitoring. The alerts come in when it’s still on or something like that.
There are a few things I have to sort out still, but not really. Mostly it’s just how to manage the private certificates for the environments for SSH access to the box from my many computers. But copy and paste is pretty much fine for now, or maybe keep it in 1Password. Actually I’ll spend some time figuring this out, but it shouldn’t be too bad.
There is definitely some refactoring to be done, and improvements that could be made to the Ansible and Terraform code. So after I develop the app a little more, I’m going to work on this, and the next post will go into breaking up the Terraform appropriately, and improving the Ansible a bit with things like handlers and other good practices.